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conurbation. A landfill site with 36 million t of solid waste was operated for 28 years on premises occupying 1,400,000 m2. In 2004, the city administration initiated a test procedure for methane generation, already with a view to setting up an electricity power plant. Because the administrators intended to finance the project in a cap-and-trade procedure, they went public with CO2 credits. It took little time before the Dutch Fortis Bank paid € 12.8 million for the credits. Low demand Law nº 12.187 (2009) laid down the political directives to combat climate change (PNMC). Latin America’s major stock exchange BM&FBOVESPA operates an online service for Clean Development Mechanism projects (CDM) where CO2 credit auctions are conducted electronically if the providers so request. Nevertheless, as Fernando Meneguin, economic advisor at the Federal Senate of Brazil, is unhappy to note, de facto this market has never been regulated. According to Meneguin the main reason for this is “that there is no demand for CO2 credits in the country – there are indeed offers but there is hardly any demand.” SUN & WIND ENERGY spoke with Henrique Pereira in Brazil. As executive for new business opportunities for the WayCarbon company, he is in charge of implementing corporate strategies, low emission technologies as well as sustainable financing. He too is not very upbeat when asked how important CO2 certificates are for realising renewable energy projects in Brazil. ”For the time being not important at all. The international commercial value of CO2 credits currently lies below € 0.50. Alternatively, more interesting and worthwhile offerings can be found in the voluntary CDM market. However, there is uncertainty about demand and therefore these credits are currently not attractive.” Pereira explains that until 2012 almost every renewable energy project installed in Brazil was based on CDM applications. Mini hydropower plants and wind farms still occupy a place in the Brazilian portfolio of emissions. “The only project using environmentally friendly technology that was put into operation in 2014 was developed by Waycarbon and registered on the CDM list. However, we suspect that due to the high costs for the application procedure, compared to the results that are to be expected from this project in terms of low emissions, it is hard to see how the credits will be issued.” Pereira sums things up: “The potential is great, yet the market seems to advance in crab-like sideways movements.” This, of course, is not a scenario that would attract many domestic or foreign investors. Frederico Füllgraf Company Profile Advertorial Windar Photonics Wind turbines equipped with WindEYE, a nacelle mounted LiDAR system developed by Windar Photonics A/S, always face the wind perfectly and so reap the maximum possible yield. WindEYE is used for wind measurements and permanently dynamic yaw corrections. And this already is the big difference to other LiDAR systems on the market: WindEYE is not only a temporary calibration tool, but guarantees a permanently precise run of the wind turbine. It is a control integrated LiDAR (CIL) that integrates with the turbine controller and can thus use the existing wind sensors as backup sensors. That the WindEYE can remain permanently on the wind turbine is primarily due to the low cost of the LiDAR. “Quite a few of our competitor’s systems costs ten times as much as the WindEYE”, says Thomas Dyhr from Windar Photonics. WindEYE is based on improved laser technology. As it contains no mechanical parts that can get worn out it requires minimal maintenance (every 24 months). “Inside the compact design, there are no mechanical parts to wear out or break down. The wind sensor is controlled entirely by electrical signals and can withstand extreme conditions on top of a wind turbine”, explains Anders Bak, R&D Engineer at Windar Photonics. Windar Photonics praises the economic feasibility of its WindEYE. The company promises a higher annual energy production (2 to 4 % increase), less fatigue loads on the vital parts of the turbine (10 to 14 % reduction), which means less down-time and repair/maintenance costs and at least a return of investment in about 1 to 4 years. With the nacelle mounted LiDAR system WindEYE wind turbines are able to adjust and harvest the wind optimally. Windar Photonics A/S Helgeshøj Alle 16-18 DK-2630 Taastrup Denmark rk@windarphotonics.com www.windarphotonics.com Predicting the wind


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